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Critical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-herb interactions in rats between warfarin and pomegranate peel or guava leaves extracts

Alnaqeeb, Maisa, Mansor, Kenza A., Mallah, Eyad M., Ghanim, Bayan Y., Idkaidek, Nasir, Qinna, Nidal A.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 29
alternative medicine, anticoagulant activity, anticoagulants, blood, cytochrome P-450, ellagic acid, enzymes, guavas, hemorrhage, hepatocytes, herbal medicines, high performance liquid chromatography, in vitro studies, laboratory animals, leaf extracts, leaves, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pomegranates, prothrombin, quercetin, rats, risk, warfarin
BACKGROUND: In-depth information of potential drug-herb interactions between warfarin and herbal compounds with suspected anticoagulant blood thinning effects is needed to raise caution of concomitant administration. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of co-administration of pomegranate peel and guava leaves extracts, including their quality markers namely; ellagic acid and quercetin, respectively, on warfarin’s in vivo dynamic activity and pharmacokinetic actions, in addition to potential in vitro cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) inhibition. METHODS: Influence of mentioned extracts and their key constituents on warfarin pharmacodynamic and kinetic actions and CYP activity were evaluated. The pharmacodynamic interactions were studied in Sprague Dawley rats through prothrombin time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements, while pharmacokinetic interactions were detected in vivo using a validated HPLC method. Furthermore, potential involvement in CYP inhibition was also investigated in vitro on isolated primary rat hepatocytes. RESULTS: Preparations of pomegranate peel guava leaf extract, ellagic acid and quercetin in combination with warfarin were found to exert further significant increase on PT and INR values (p < 0.01) than when used alone (p < 0.05). Pomegranate peel extract showed insignificant effects on warfarin pharmacokinetics (p > 0.05), however, its constituent, namely, ellagic acid significantly increased warfarin Cₘₐₓ (p < 0.05). Guava leaves extract and quercetin resulted in significant increase in warfarin Cₘₐₓ when compared to control (p < 0.01). Furthermore, guava leaves extract showed a significant effect on changing the AUC, CL and Vz. Significant reduction in CYP2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 was seen upon concomitant use of warfarin with ellagic acid, guava leaves and quercetin, unlike pomegranate that insignificantly affected CYP activities. CONCLUSION: All combinations enhanced the anticoagulant activity of warfarin as the results of in vivo and in vitro studies were consistent. The current investigation confirmed serious drug herb interactions between warfarin and pomegranate peel or guava leaf extracts. Such results might conclude a high risk of bleeding from the co-administration of the investigated herbal drugs with warfarin therapy. In addition, the results raise attention to the blood-thinning effects of pomegranate peel and guava leaves when used alone.