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Quality of ready-to-eat komal chawal produced by brown rice parboiling method

Wahengbam, Elizabeth Devi, Hazarika, Manuj Kumar
Journal of food science and technology 2019 v.56 no.1 pp. 187-199
X-ray diffraction, air drying, air temperature, amylose, atmospheric pressure, brown rice, color, equilibrium moisture content, flour, grain yield, hardness, parboiling, ready-to-eat foods, rehydration, sediments, seeds, soaking, starch granules, steaming, viscosity
Komal chawal, meaning soft rice, produced by brown rice parboiling of a low amylose rice variety chokuwa, was studied for its physical, physico-chemical, morphological and structural characteristics. The product was produced by soaking the brown rice at 60 °C for 90 min, followed by steaming and air drying to 12.0% (wb). The two steaming conditions used were: (1) open-steaming at atmospheric pressure for 20 min and (2) pressure-steaming at 1 atm (gauge) for 10 min. The three different drying temperatures used were 40, 50 and 60 °C. When soaked in water at 60 °C for 20 min the product attained a hardness value of cooked rice. The extent of changes in the kernel and flour properties as compared to the raw form were affected by the severity of the steaming condition and drying air temperature. The pressure steamed samples exhibited virtually persistent growth in paste viscosity in the profiles obtained from the rapid viscosity analyzer. X-ray diffraction analysis of flours revealed a loss of A-type pattern and formation of feeble peaks of A + V-type mixed patterns in steam-treated samples. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed the loss of the polygonal shape by starch granules during processing. The values of rehydration ratio, equilibrium moisture content for rehydration, sediment volume, extent of color change as denoted by total color difference, and the percent head rice yield were higher in pressure steamed komal chawal samples.