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The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

Benedict T. Green, Stephen T. Lee, Kevin D. Welch, Dale R. Gardner, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, T. Zane Davis
Research in veterinary science 2015 v.100 pp. 239-244
Holstein, Lupinus, alkaloids, beef, blood sampling, blood serum, calves, cattle diseases, cattle industry, congenital abnormalities, disease incidence, disease severity, oral administration, pharmacokinetics, phytotoxins, steers, teratogenicity
Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity.