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Haplotypic differentiation between seasonal populations of Sargassum horneri (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in Japan

Watanabe, Kohei, Homma, Yuri, Karakisawa, Hideyuki, Ishikawa, Ryoko, Uwai, Shinya
Phycological research 2019 v.67 no.1 pp. 59-64
DNA, Sargassum horneri, autumn, breeding season, cytochrome-c oxidase, genes, genetic analysis, genetic variation, haplotypes, macroalgae, mitochondria, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, spring, winter, Japan
Conspecific populations with different life‐cycle seasonality, particularly of their reproductive season, have been reported for many seaweed species. However, the number of genetic analyses of such seasonal populations is limited. Herein, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 3 gene (cox3) haplotype, we evaluated the genetic diversity of winter (January–March) and spring (April–June) fertile populations of the brown alga Sargassum horneri in Sado Island, Japan. Obviously, dominant cox3 haplotypes were different between seasons (even at a single site), and the N ST values indicated the presence of a strong genetic differentiation between the two seasonal populations. AMOVA analyses confirmed that most of the genetic diversity was between seasons rather than between regions. Herein, the possibility of allochronic isolation is discussed. Considering the phylogeny of the mitochondrial cox3 DNA sequence, autumn or winter seasonal populations such as those in this investigation have evolved independently at least twice in the species. The present study shows that a shift in breeding season could be expected to conserve the genetic diversity of S. horneri in a certain region.