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Effect of fishmeal replacement by poultry by‐product meal on growth performance, proximate composition, digestive enzyme activity, haematological parameters and gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)
- Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T., Psofakis, Pier, Mente, Elena, Malandrakis, Emmanouil, Golomazou, Eleni
- Aquaculture nutrition 2019 v.25 no.1 pp. 3-14
- Sparus aurata, adverse effects, animal growth, cathepsin D, chymotrypsin, diet, digestibility, enzyme activity, feed conversion, feed intake, fish, fish health, fish meal, growth performance, juveniles, lipids, liver, lysine, methionine, muscles, poultry meal, protein metabolism, proximate composition, somatomedins, trypsin
- Two feeding trials examined the replacement of fishmeal (FM) with poultry by‐product meal (PBM) in the diet of juvenile Sparus aurata. In Feeding trial I (100 days), three diets were formulated, where FM protein was replaced by 50% (PBM50) and 100% (PBM100) PBM, while in Feeding trial II (110 days), four diets were formulated using the same FM control diet, but FM was replaced at lower levels: 25% (PBM25), and 25% (PBM25 +) and 50% (PBM50 +) with the supplementation of lysine and methionine amino acids. PBM protein can successfully replace 50% of FM protein in the diet of S. aurata without adverse effects on survival, feed intake, growth performance and feed utilization, given that the diet is balanced with lysine and methionine. The proximate composition of body and muscle was unaffected by the diet, but the total FM replacement resulted in reduced lipid and energy contents in fish. A fifty per cent FM replacement by PBM did not affect haematological parameters indicating a good fish health. Similarities in trypsin and chymotrypsin activities with FM‐fed fish suggest a high digestibility of PBM. High dietary levels of PBM reduced the liver gene expression of GH/IGF axis and of cathepsin D suppressing fish growth and modulating the protein turnover.