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Bradyrhizobium and Pseudomonas strains obtained from coal‐mining areas nodulate and promote the growth of Calopogonium muconoides plants used in the reclamation of degraded areas

González, A.H., Morales Londoño, D., Pille da Silva, E., Nascimento, F.X.I., de Souza, L.F., da Silva, B.G., Canei, A.D., de Armas, R.D., Giachini, A.J., Soares, C.R.F.S.
Journal of applied microbiology 2019 v.126 no.2 pp. 523-533
Bradyrhizobium, Calopogonium mucunoides, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, biofilm, indole acetic acid, land restoration, nitrogen fertilizers, nodulation, phosphates, plant growth, soil, soil degradation, solubilization
AIMS: The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize indigenous rhizobia from coal‐mining areas able to efficiently nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo). METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolation, authentication and morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the autochthonous rhizobia were performed and their symbiotic efficiency (SE) evaluated. Efficient rhizobial isolates suitable for the inoculation of calopo in coal‐mining regions were obtained. A total of 30 isolates were obtained after nodulation authentication, of which five presented high SE with plant‐growth promoting traits such as indole‐3‐acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and biofilm formation. These isolates were identified as belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. CONCLUSIONS: Bradyrhizobium sp. A2‐10 and Pseudomonas sp. A6‐05 were able to promote calopo plant growth using soil obtained from coal‐mining degraded areas, thus indicating their potential as inoculants aiming at land reclamation. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To our knowledge, this is the first report of Pseudomonas nodule formation in calopo. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that autochthonous rhizobia obtained from degraded soils presented high SE in calopo and possess a wide range of plant‐growth promoting traits. Ultimately, they may all contribute to an increased leguminous plant growth under stress conditions. The selected rhizobia strains may be used as inoculants and present a valuable role in the development of strategies aiming to recover coal‐mining degraded areas. Bacterial inoculants would greatly reduce the use of often harmful nitrogen fertilizers vastly employed in revegetation programmes of degraded areas.