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Critical evaluation of microextraction pretreatment techniques – Part 1: Single drop and sorbent‐based techniques

Havlikova, Martina, Cabala, Radomir, Pacakova, Vera, Bursova, Miroslava, Bosakova, Zuzana
Journal of separation science 2019 v.42 no.1 pp. 273-284
microextraction, separation, sorption, sustainable technology
Sample pretreatment techniques or preconcentration constitute a very important step before the analysis of environmental, clinical, pharmaceutical, and other complex samples. Thanks to extraction techniques it is possible to achieve higher method sensitivities and selectivities. Miniaturization microextraction methods make them more environmentally friendly and only small amounts of samples are required. In the past 30 years, a number of microextraction methods have been developed and used and are documented in thousands of articles. Many reviews have been written focusing on their use in specified professional fields or on the latest trends. Unfortunately, no uniform nomenclature has been introduced for these methods. Therefore, this review attempts to classify all the essential microextraction techniques and describes their advantages, disadvantages, and the latest innovations. The methods are divided into two main groups: single drop and sorbent‐based techniques according to the type of extraction phase.