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Recent advances in mixed‐mode chromatographic stationary phases

Sýkora, David, Řezanka, Pavel, Záruba, Kamil, Král, Vladimír
Journal of separation science 2019 v.42 no.1 pp. 89-129
electrostatic interactions, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, solutes, sorbents
Mixed‐mode phases have become very popular in the last decade, and the number of new mixed/multi‐mode sorbents is growing fast. Unlike single‐mode stationary phases, perfectly suited for the separation of the analytes possessing similar physicochemical properties, for instance reversed‐phase chromatography for hydrophobic solutes, mixed‐mode sorbents providing multimodal interactions can render better separation selectivity for complex mixtures of solutes differing significantly in their physicochemical characteristics. The most frequent modern mixed‐mode stationary phases are di/tri‐mode sorbents embracing the following interactions, hydrophobic, electrostatic (coulombic), and hydrophilic. According to their structures, it is possible to distinguish silica‐based, polymer‐based, hybrid, and monolithic mixed‐mode stationary phases. Herewith, newly synthesized mixed‐mode sorbents developed within the last two and half years are categorized, discussed, and summarized. The main attention is devoted to the description of the synthetic routes and characterization methods applied for the new stationary phases.