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Preliminary analysis of geographical distribution based on cold hardiness for Evergestis extimalis (Scopoli) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

Lai, You‐Peng, Tao, Ke, Hou, Tai‐Ping
Entomological research 2019 v.49 no.1 pp. 13-20
Evergestis, Pyralidae, altitude, ambient temperature, catalase, cold, cold tolerance, freezing point, geographical distribution, glycerol, glycogen, insect pests, larvae, overwintering, peroxidase, protein content, spring, supercooling point, superoxide dismutase, surveys, China
Evergestis extimalis (Scopoli) is a pest insect present in spring rape fields of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau. A survey of its distribution and analysis of its physiological and biochemical variances of its overwintering larvae were conducted in this study. Prior to 2006, Evergestis extimalis Scopli appeared only sporadically at the east agricultural district of Qinghai Province at 2,100 m elevation; after 2006, there have been frequent outbreaks at 2,200 m or so height. The insect's distribution has extended continuously toward higher altitudes yearly, and the scope of its damage reached 2,800 m height in 2010. These changes indicate that the cold hardiness of E. extimalis is on the rise. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for the insect's overwintering larvae from November 2011 to March 2012. The supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) ranged from −6.85°C to −12.49°C and from −6.23°C to −8.17°C, respectively, and both were at their respective lowest points in January 2012; the lowest points of water and fat contents (which did not vary to any extreme degree throughout the test period) were also observed in January 2012. Glycogen content varied from 2.42 mg/g to 4.56 mg/g. Protein content increased gradually at the first two months and reached its peak in January 2012 before dropping slightly. The activity of protective enzymes POD, CAT, and SOD varied with changes in environmental temperature, and each was at its lowest point in January 2012. With the exception of protein and glycerol content, other physiological and biochemical variances were generally parallel with environmental temperature, strongly indicating that E. extimalis has indeed developed cold hardiness.