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Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition

Sung, Jwakyung, Lee, Suyeon, Lee, Yejin, Ha, Sangkeum, Song, Beomheon, Kim, Taewan, Waters, Brian M., Krishnan, Hari B.
Plant science 2015 v.241 pp. 55-64
Solanum lycopersicum, allantoin, amino acid metabolism, amino acids, amino sugars, biochemical pathways, energy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydroponics, leaves, liquid chromatography, metabolites, metabolomics, minerals, nitrogen, nucleic acids, nutrient deficiencies, organic acids and salts, phosphorus, plant tissues, potassium, putrescine, raffinose, roots, tomatoes
Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are essential macronutrients that are required in large quantities by growing plants. Deficiency of N, P or K can strongly affect metabolites in plant tissues. However, specific metabolic network responses to nutrient deficiencies are not well-defined. Here, we conducted a detailed broad-scale identification of metabolic responses of tomato leaves and roots to N, P or K deficiencies. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically under optimal (5 mM N, 0.5 mM P, or 5 mM) and deficient (0.5 mM N, 0.05 mM P, or 0.5 mM K) conditions and metabolites were measured by LC-MS and GC-MS. Based on these results, deficiency of any of these three minerals affected energy production and amino acid metabolism. However, there were also distinct processes that were impaired in each of the mineral deficiencies. N deficiency generally led to decreased amino acids and organic acids, and increased soluble sugars. P deficiency resulted in increased amino acids and organic acids in roots, and decreased soluble sugars. K deficiency caused accumulation of soluble sugars and amino acids in roots, and decreased organic acids and amino acids in leaves. Notable metabolic pathway alterations included; 1) increased levels of a-ketoglutarate and raffinose family oligosaccharides in N, P or K-deficient tomato roots, 2) increased degradation products of nucleic acids such as allantoin and ß-alanine under P deficiency, and 3) increased putrescine in K-deficient roots. These findings provide new knowledge of metabolic changes in response to mineral macronutrient deficiencies.