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Testing the translocation hypothesis and Haldane’s rule in Rumex hastatulus

Kasjaniuk, Magdalena, Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra, Joachimiak, Andrzej J.
Protoplasma 2019 v.256 no.1 pp. 237-247
Rumex, chromosome translocation, hybrids, male fertility, males, meiosis, pollen, races, reciprocal crosses, sex chromosomes, sex ratio, viability, North Carolina, Texas
The translocation hypothesis regarding the origin of the XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system was tested with reference to the F1 hybrids between two chromosomal races of Rumex hastatulus. The hybrids derived from reciprocal crossing between the Texas (T) race and the North Carolina (NC) race were investigated for the first time with respect to the meiotic chromosome configuration in the pollen mother cells, pollen viability, and sex ratio. A sex chromosome trivalent in the NC × T males and two sex chromosome bivalents in the T × NC males were detected. The observed conjugation patterns confirmed the autosomal origin of the extra chromosome segments occurring in the North Carolina neo-sex chromosomes. Decreased pollen viability was found in the T × NC hybrid in contrast to the NC × T hybrid and the parental forms. Moreover, only in the T × NC hybrid sex ratio was significantly female-biased (1:1.72). Thus, Haldane’s rule for both male fertility and male rarity was shown in this hybrid. According to the authors’ knowledge, R. hastatulus is just the second plant with sex chromosomes in which Haldane’s rule was evidenced.