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Does somaclonal variation play advantageous role in conservation practice of endangered species?: comprehensive genetic studies of in vitro propagated plantlets of Viola stagnina Kit. (Violaceae)
- Żabicki, Piotr, Sliwinska, Elwira, Mitka, Józef, Sutkowska, Agnieszka, Tuleja, Monika, Migdałek, Grzegorz, Żabicka, Justyna, Słomka, Aneta, Kwiatkowska, Monika, Kuta, Elżbieta
- Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2019 v.136 no.2 pp. 339-352
- Viola, adventitious shoots, cleistogamy, clones, conservation practices, endangered species, flow cytometry, flowers, genetic analysis, genome, genotype, in vitro regeneration, indole acetic acid, leaf blade, micropropagation, microsatellite repeats, organogenesis, petioles, plantlets, pollen, rooting, seed set, somaclonal variation, sucrose, thidiazuron
- In vitro regeneration of Viola stagnina Kit., endangered in most part of its European distribution range, was successfully obtained based on the newly developed protocol. Adventitious shoots via direct and indirect organogenesis were induced on leaf blade and petiole fragments on solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 or 1 mg l⁻¹ thidiazuron, respectively. Shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with 2% sucrose and 0.5 mg l⁻¹ indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and plantlets were successfully acclimatized. Sixty-five of the regenerated plants (72% of isolated shoots cultured on rooting medium) survived at the experimental plot conditions. Among recovered via organogenesis plants, individuals ‘true-to-type’ derived from initial plant G1 and also plants genetically distant from initial plants were detected by ISSR markers. In all groups of clones genetic indices (number of genotypes, polymorphic markers, gene diversity, total gene diversity, mean gene diversity) were lower than in natural populations. Regenerated plantlets had the same genome size estimated by flow cytometry as initial material and plants from natural populations. They developed chasmogamous flowers with highly viable pollen grains (over 90%), cleistogamous flowers, and set seeds from both flower types in the first and second seasons cultivated at experimental plots. This is the first report of a successfully developed micropropagation protocol of V. stagnina, and the first detailed genetic analysis of recovered plants with the use of ISSR markers and genome size measurements allowing to discuss the advantageous role of somaclonal variation in ex situ plant conservation with the use of in vitro micropropagation.