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Multi-response optimization of oil extraction from pine nut (Pinus pinea L.) by response surface methodology: Extraction efficiency, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity
- Kemerli-Kalbaran, Tansel, Ozdemir, Murat
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.103 pp. 34-43
- Pinus pinea, antioxidant activity, experimental design, hexane, oils, p-anisidine value, peroxide value, response surface methodology, solvents, temperature
- Effects of solvent extraction conditions on the extraction efficiency, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of pine nut oil were investigated and optimized by using three level Box-Behnken design (BBD). Temperature (25–65 °C), time (10–60 min) and solvent/sample (S/S) ratio (5–20 mL g−1) were chosen as the independent variables while the dependent variables were extraction efficiency, yellowness index (YI), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), totox value (TV), DPPH-hydrophilic fraction (DPPH-HF), DPPH-lipophilic fraction (DPPH-LF) and DPPH-oil to obtain pine nut oil with high oil yield, and desirable physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. N-hexane was found to be the most effective solvent for the extraction. Extraction efficiency, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of pine nut oil were highly affected by temperature, time and S/S ratio. Desirability function approach was used to determine optimum conditions. The optimum conditions for the production of pine nut oil with solvent extraction were attained at the extraction temperature of 39.3 °C, extraction time of 33.4 min and S/S ratio of 10.8:1 (mL g−1). At optimum conditions, the predicted values for the extraction efficiency, YI, PV, p-AnV, TV, DPPH-HF, DPPH-LF and DPPH-oil yielded 80.03%, 59.89, 1.05 meq peroxide kg−1 oil, 0.92, 3.02, 8.60%, 65.07% and 73.35%, respectively.