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Fabrication of whole soybean curd using three soymilk preparation techniques

Zhang, Qing, Zhou, Siyi, Chen, Jie, Qin, Wen, Liu, Jiang, Yang, Wenyu, Zhang, Lihua
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.104 pp. 91-99
chewiness, cohesion, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, gel strength, grinding, principal component analysis, sensory properties, soymilk, temperature, texture, tofu, ultrasonics
Whole soybean curds (WSCs) were fabricated using superfine grinding, ultrasonic disruption, and cellulase enzymolysis, and their quality attributes were comparatively investigated. By using single factor experiment, surface response optimization, and principal component analysis, operation parameters for processing WSC were optimized: frequency 25 Hz, time 9 min, and water-to-powder ratio 6:1 for superfine grinding, power 150 W, time 9 min, and water-to-powder ratio 5.5:1 for ultrasonic disruption, cellulase concentration 9 U/g powder, temperature 45 °C, and time 35 min for enzymolysis. Significant differences in textural properties and sensory quality of WSCs made under optimized parameters were observed, which were closely related to different effects generated by the three techniques on okara. Among the three types of WSC, WSC fabricated by superfine grinding exhibited enhanced textural properties, such as gel strength 1.43 N, cohesiveness 64.06, and chewiness 0.60 N mm, which were significantly higher than those of traditional soybean curd (TSC) (gel strength 1.13 N, cohesiveness 46.32, and chewiness 0.42 N mm) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, no significant difference in sensory quality was found between this type of WSC and TSC (p > 0.05). Fabrication of WSC with desirable edible quality using suitable technique and appropriate parameters was confirmed and could be further developed for commercial application.