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Optimization of ‘green’ extraction of carotenoids from mango pulp using split plot design and its characterization
- Baria, Bhavesh, Upadhyay, Neelam, Singh, Ashish Kumar, Malhotra, Ravinder Kumar
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.104 pp. 186-194
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Helianthus annuus, antioxidant activity, biorefining, carotenoids, color, experimental design, fruits, functional foods, linseed oil, magnetism, mango pulp, mixing, peanuts, solvents, statistical analysis, ultrasonic treatment, vegetable oil
- Mango, king of all fruits, is a good source of carotenoids. The present investigation was aimed at extraction of carotenoids from mango pulp using bio-refinery concept. Three green solvents, namely groundnut, sunflower and flaxseed oil were used. The carotenoids were extracted for different time intervals in different green solvents at different pulp to vegetable oil ratio using magnetic stirring (MS), ultrasonication (US), microwave (MW) and high shear dispersion (HSD) techniques. Out of 540 samples (3 × 180) analyzed, one combination was selected on the basis of highest total carotenoid content (TCC) using split plot design of statistical analysis. Maximum extraction was possible in flaxseed oil by using HSD technique. The selected combination was compared with corresponding vegetable oil (used as a control) for TCC, antioxidant activity (ABTS, μg Trolox eq./ml; DPPH, μg Trolox eq./ml and FRAP, μM Trolox eq./ml), tocopherol content and colour value (L, a, b) and showed a respective increase of 158.8-6, 123.72, 33.37, 11.95, 15.15% and 12.77, 5.57, 21.51 units. The increase in carotenoid content was further confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The carotenoid-rich extract can be applied in food formulations for preparation of functional foods.