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Effects of Kernel Vitreousness and Protein Level on Protein Molecular Weight Distribution, Milling Quality, and Breadmaking Quality in Hard Red Spring Wheat

Baasandorj, Tsogtbayar, Ohm, Jae-Bom, Simsek, Senay
Cereal chemistry 2016 v.93 no.4 pp. 426-434
absorption, analysis of variance, baking, breadmaking, breadmaking quality, crop quality, flour, hard red spring wheat, high performance liquid chromatography, industry, milling, milling quality, models, molecular weight, protein content, regression analysis, seeds, starch, surveys, wheat protein, United States
Dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content is an important grading characteristic for hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the United States. This research investigated the associations of kernel vitreousness (KV) and protein content (PC) levels with protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), milling quality, and breadmaking quality characteristics of HRS wheat. The U.S. regional crop quality survey samples from three consecutive growing years were combined into three composite samples with different levels of wheat PC and then further segregated into separate samples with three different levels of KV. Analysis of variance showed that KV level had significant (P < 0.001) effect on variation in test weight, break flour yield, and damaged starch content. Among protein MWD parameters analyzed by size-exclusion HPLC, the high-molecular-weight polymeric proteins in the SDS-unextractable fraction had significant (P < 0.01) association with KV. Regression analysis indicated that addition of KV to the PC level improved the model for both farinograph and baking water absorption values in all three growing years. This information could help the flour milling and baking industries to further segregate HRS wheat based on KV levels in addition to PC levels for their intended end-use applications.