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Insecticide pyriproxyfen (Dragón®) damage biotransformation, thyroid hormones, heart rate, and swimming performance of Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles

Lajmanovich, Rafael C., Peltzer, Paola M., Martinuzzi, Candela S., Attademo, Andrés M., Bassó, Agustín, Colussi, Carlina L.
Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 714-722
acetylcholinesterase, biotransformation, carboxylesterase, enzyme activity, glutathione, heart, heart rate, lethal concentration 50, pyriproxyfen, swimming, tadpoles, triiodothyronine
Odontoprynus americanus tadpoles were used to determine the safety concentration of pyriproxyfen (PPF) insecticide by acute and sublethal toxicity tests (nominal range tested 0.01 to 10 [± 15%] PPF mg/L). Median lethal concentration (LC50) and no, and lowest-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively) were calculated. We also assessed the effect on the activities of glutathione S-transferse (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and carboxylesterase (CbE) and compared to control (CO) tadpoles. Based on the 48-h NOEC value, two sublethal concentrations of PPF (0.01 and 0.1 mg/L) were assayed to detect effects on enzymes activities (GST and CbE), thyroid hormone's levels (triiodothyronine; T3 and thyroxine; T4), heart function, and tadpoles swimming behaviour. The results showed that the LC50 values of O. americanus tadpoles were 3.73 PPF mg/L and 2.51 PPF mg/L at 24-h and 48-h, respectively (NOEC = 0.1 mg/L; LOEC = 1 mg/L, for both times). PPF concentrations at 48 h, induced enzymatic activities such as GST (212.98%–242.94%), AChE (142.15%–165.08%), and CbE (141.86%–87.14%) significantly respect to COs. During the 22 days of chronic PPF exposure, GST (0.01 mg/L 88%–153% NOEC), AChE (177.82% NOEC), and T4 (70% NOEC) also significantly increased respect to COs. Similarly, heart rate (fH) and ventricular cycle length (VV interval) in CO tadpoles were significantly higher than PPF treated. Finally, at NOEC tadpoles exhibited significant effects on the behavioral endpoint (swimming distance, mean speed, and global activity; P < 0.05).