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Assessment of phytotoxicity, environmental and health risks of historical urban park soils

Brtnický, Martin, Pecina, Václav, Hladký, Jan, Radziemska, Maja, Koudelková, Zuzana, Klimánek, Martin, Richtera, Lukáš, Adamcová, Dana, Elbl, Jakub, Galiová, Michaela Vašinová, Baláková, Ludmila, Kynický, Jindřich, Smolíková, Vendula, Houška, Jakub, Vaverková, Magdalena Daria
Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 678-686
cadmium, copper, ecosystems, heavy metals, lead, phytotoxicity, risk, soil pollution, soil sampling, toxicity testing, urban parks, urban soils, zinc
Urban soil areas can be contaminated with potentially dangerous heavy metals (HM), which might have got there by means of the human activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the contamination level of the city park soils and its impact on urban ecosystem. The indices assessing soil contamination such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (IPIN), and indices assessing health risks, namely Hazard Index (HI) and Carcinogenic Risk (CR), have been calculated. Furthermore, the phytotoxic effect of the soil samples has been determined. The soil contains in average 58.6 mg/kg Zn, 0.3 mg/kg Cd, 27.2 mg/kg Pb and 16.6 mg/kg Cu. Based on EF index, it has been confirmed that the increased amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil are of the anthropogenic origin. The soil may be classified as moderately to strongly polluted in the case of Zn and Pb according to Igeo. Nevertheless, soil contamination in the park is at a safe level as per IPIN. Based on HI and CR indices, it is possible to state that the soil in the park does not pose any health risks. Subject to the outcomes of the toxicity test, the concentrations of HMs found out in the soils are not inhibitory for plants.