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Effects of β-cyclodextrin on phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209 by arbuscular mycorrhizal amaranth

Li, Xing, Chen, Ao Yu, Yu, Le Yi, Chen, Xue Xue, Xiang, Lei, Zhao, Hai Ming, Mo, Ce Hui, Li, Yan Wen, Cai, Quan Ying, Wong, Ming Hung, Li, Hui
Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 910-920
Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Rhizophagus intraradices, beta-cyclodextrin, biomass, cadmium, chlorophyll, chloroplasts, decontamination, mycorrhizal fungi, phytoremediation, polluted soils, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, roots, shoots, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, xylem
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a series of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209 by amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) – Rhizophagus intraradices. Results showed that the combination of mycorrhizal amaranth and 0.4% β-CD (RI+β0.4) significantly enhanced Cd concentrations and contents in shoots, total PBDEs concentration in roots, and BDE-209 dissipation in soil. Moreover, the RI+β0.4 treatment exerted the highest removal efficiency of both Cd and BDE-209. On the contrary, the xylem area, shoot Cd and BDE-209 concentrations and contents, and removal efficiency of Cd were markedly reduced in mycorrhizal amaranth with 0.8% or 1.2% β-CD treatments (RI+β0.8, RI+β1.2), compared with single inoculation treatment. The well-organized chloroplast and well-defined root anatomical structure were also observed in the treatment of RI+β0.4. Positive correlation was found between shoot biomass and chlorophyll concentrations. Shoot Cd or BDE-209 concentrations were positively correlated with xylem areas. In conclusion, mycorrhizal amaranth added with 0.4% β-CD could be used for the decontamination of soil polluted with mixture of Cd and BDE-209 due to the higher chlorophyll concentration and the larger xylem area.