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Effects of β-cyclodextrin on phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209 by arbuscular mycorrhizal amaranth
- Li, Xing, Chen, Ao Yu, Yu, Le Yi, Chen, Xue Xue, Xiang, Lei, Zhao, Hai Ming, Mo, Ce Hui, Li, Yan Wen, Cai, Quan Ying, Wong, Ming Hung, Li, Hui
- Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 910-920
- Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Rhizophagus intraradices, beta-cyclodextrin, biomass, cadmium, chlorophyll, chloroplasts, decontamination, mycorrhizal fungi, phytoremediation, polluted soils, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, roots, shoots, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, xylem
- Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a series of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209 by amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) – Rhizophagus intraradices. Results showed that the combination of mycorrhizal amaranth and 0.4% β-CD (RI+β0.4) significantly enhanced Cd concentrations and contents in shoots, total PBDEs concentration in roots, and BDE-209 dissipation in soil. Moreover, the RI+β0.4 treatment exerted the highest removal efficiency of both Cd and BDE-209. On the contrary, the xylem area, shoot Cd and BDE-209 concentrations and contents, and removal efficiency of Cd were markedly reduced in mycorrhizal amaranth with 0.8% or 1.2% β-CD treatments (RI+β0.8, RI+β1.2), compared with single inoculation treatment. The well-organized chloroplast and well-defined root anatomical structure were also observed in the treatment of RI+β0.4. Positive correlation was found between shoot biomass and chlorophyll concentrations. Shoot Cd or BDE-209 concentrations were positively correlated with xylem areas. In conclusion, mycorrhizal amaranth added with 0.4% β-CD could be used for the decontamination of soil polluted with mixture of Cd and BDE-209 due to the higher chlorophyll concentration and the larger xylem area.