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Supramolecular solvent-based microextraction of emerging bisphenol A replacements (colour developers) in indoor dust from public environments

Dueñas-Mas, María Jesús, Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana, Rubio, Soledad
Chemosphere 2019 v.222 pp. 22-28
bisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, color, dust, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, humans, hydrophobicity, microextraction, paper, restaurants, solvents, surfactants, toxicity
Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in a wide variety of materials and it is a well-known endocrine disruptor that is widespread in indoor and outdoor environments. For this reason, industry has introduced a variety of replacements, such as Bisphenol S (BPS) or Bisphenol F (BPF), and other less known structural analogs, such as BPS-MAE, D-8 or TGSA. These emerging potential contaminants have been identified in thermal paper products, according to recent studies, but their potential toxic effects and their migration into the environment remain unclear. In this study, we report for the first time the presence of emerging BPA replacements in indoor dust from public environments (shops, restaurants, etc.). For this purpose, we optimized a novel supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS)-based microextraction method. SUPRAS are multi-target solvents made up of self-assembled amphiphiles. They offer multiple extraction interactions (dispersion, polar, hydrophobic, etc.) and they constitute excellent candidates to develop generic and fast sample treatment procedures at low cost. By this method, emerging BPA replacements (BPS-MAE, D-8 and TGSA) were detected in dust at median concentrations in the range 6–22 ng g−1 (around ten times lower than BPS) with detection frequencies in the range 50–90%. These results constitute a first insight into the migration of emerging BPA replacements into the environment via indoor dust, which is a common route of human exposure to contaminants.