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Regulation of expression and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in luminal epithelial and stromal cells of the porcine endometrium

Blitek, Agnieszka, Szymanska, Magdalena
Theriogenology 2019 v.127 pp. 88-101
DNA, agonists, amino acid transporters, angiogenesis, apoptosis, caspase-3, cell proliferation, conceptus, endometrium, epithelium, fatty acid metabolism, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, glucose, glucose transporters, immune response, leukemia inhibitory factor, messenger RNA, nutrient transport, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, protein synthesis, staining, stromal cells, swine, vascular endothelial growth factor A
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PPARs are important regulators of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune response. Their possible role in the female reproductive tract was demonstrated. In the present study, cultured luminal epithelial (LE) and stromal (ST) cells of the porcine endometrium were used to examine (1) the effect of conceptus exposed medium (CEM) on mRNA and protein expression and DNA binding activity of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG isoforms, and (2) the effect of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG agonists on the expression of selected genes, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. The addition of CEM stimulated PPARA expression and DNA binding activity of this isoform in LE and ST cells (P < 0.05). Increased expression of PPARD mRNA in the presence of CEM was detected in ST cells (P < 0.05), while the concentration of PPARG transcripts decreased in response to CEM in both cell types (P < 0.05). LE and ST cells of the pig endometrium possess PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG proteins, with clear nuclear staining visible predominately in ST cells. In LE cells, activation of PPARG with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin(PG)J2 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding amino acid transporter 1 (SLC38A1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and enzymes involved in PG synthesis (P < 0.05). In ST cells, activation of PPARD isoform with both agonists used (L-165,041 and cPGI2) and PPARG isoform with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Moreover, GW9578 (PPARA agonist) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 stimulated glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene expression in ST cells. 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 was also effective in up-regulation of the ratio of BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression and active caspase-3 concentration in ST cells (P < 0.05). Finally, GW9578 stimulated LE and ST cell proliferation, while rosiglitazone (PPARG agonist) increased the number of viable ST but not LE cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that conceptus products differentially modulate PPARs expression and activity in the porcine endometrium. Activation of PPARs may in turn affect nutrient transport, PG synthesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, or cell proliferation in this tissue. Therefore, PPAR isoforms seem to play an important role in development and function of the porcine uterus.