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Bioconcentration of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine and its physiological and biochemical effects on Daphnia magna

Nkoom, Matthew, Lu, Guanghua, Liu, Jianchao, Yang, Haohan, Dong, Huike
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.172 pp. 11-18
Daphnia magna, acetylcholinesterase, anticonvulsants, antioxidant activity, aquatic environment, bioaccumulation factor, catalase, enzyme activity, glutathione-disulfide reductase, malondialdehyde, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, phototaxis, solar radiation, superoxide dismutase, surface water
Owing to its persistence, carbamazepine an antiepileptic drug is regularly detected in the aquatic environment. The motive for our research was to assess the bioconcentration, physiological and biochemical effects of carbamazepine in Daphnia magna. A 48 h aqueous exposure of carbamazepine yielded bioconcentration factors of 202.56 and 19.95 in Daphnia magna for the respective nominal treatments of 5 and 100 µg/L. Apparently, the inhibition of the capability of Daphnia magna to obtain food attributable to carbamazepine exposure will reduce their fitness to reproduce as well as to grow. Also, a significant alteration in the phototactic behaviour of Daphnia magna exposed to carbamazepine is maladaptive since it will increase their chance of being preyed upon in the surface water during daylight. Again, a significant decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity observed herein brings to light the neurotoxicity of carbamazepine to Daphnia magna. Moreover, significant inhibition of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities coupled with the simultaneous induction of the malondialdehyde content imply that carbamazepine evoked a life-threatening oxidative stress that overpowered the antioxidant defence system of Daphnia magna. These observations confirm that carbamazepine can accumulate and consequently cause negative physiological and biochemical changes to wild Daphnia magna populations.