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Deciphering the evolution characteristics of extracellular microbial products from autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia in response to nitrogen loading variations

Zhang, Zheng-Zhe, Cheng, Ya-Fei, Liu, Ying-Yi, Zhang, Qian, Zhu, Bing-Qian, Jin, Ren-Cun
Environment international 2019 v.124 pp. 501-510
anaerobic ammonium oxidation, bioreactors, carbohydrate metabolism, chemical oxygen demand, factor analysis, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, genes, monitoring, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, polysaccharides, total nitrogen, wastewater treatment
Extracellular microbial products (EMP) in biological wastewater treatment systems vary with operational conditions and in turn indicate the metabolic status of functional bacteria. In this study, the response of EMP from autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (AAC and MAC) to the variation of total nitrogen loading rates (TNLR) were investigated as well as their correlations with the community evolution. The variation of TNLR showed a significantly negative correlation with the production of bound microbial products (BMP) but a significantly positive correlation with the production of soluble microbial products (SMP). The presence of organic matters with COD/TN ratio of 0.15 limited the abundance of anammox bacteria in MAC at the full-load phase and suppressed their proliferation at the restart phase. Due to the improved abundance of carbohydrate metabolism genes, MAC with lower abundance of anammox bacteria produced lower soluble polysaccharides than AMC at the full-load phase. Furthermore, four components (C1–4) were identified on the excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectra of SMP using parallel factor analysis. C1 exhibited a relative higher proportion at the full-load phase, whereas C4 was generated only at the light-load phase or empty-load phase. At the restart phase, C2 and C3 appeared simultaneously and accounted for a high proportion. The information of four components also suggested the metabolic status of AC as revealed by the specific anammox activity, which therefore provided a novel complementary but direct approach for monitoring the operation status of anammox bioreactors.