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Analytical challenges to determine emerging persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems

Lorenzo, María, Campo, Julián, Picó, Yolanda
Trends in analytical chemistry 2018 v.103 pp. 137-155
aquatic ecosystems, chromatography, flame retardants, organophosphorus compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxicity
Emerging persistent organic pollutants (ePOPs) include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonate (POSF/PFOS), which are newly listed in the Stockholm Convention. Other ePOPs, which have not been regulated, include organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Often ePOPs data related to occurrence, toxicity, impact or environmental behavior are insufficient or inadequate because of the lack of proper analytical methods to obtain them. Thus, a critical review of the analytical procedures proposed in the last six years (2011–2017) for determining ePOPs by chromatographic methods in the different compartments of the aquatic ecosystems is presented. The overall analytical procedure, from sampling to final determination, is emphasized presenting recent developments in the extraction, pre-concentration, and instrumental detection needed for the accurate quantification of ePOPs in environmental samples. Finally, this review examines the basic challenges we face in order to anticipate future directions and urgent needs of this field.