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Assessing the effect of human pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) on the marine clam Ruditapes philippinarum: An integrative and multibiomarker approach
- Trombini, Chiara, Hampel, Miriam, Blasco, Julián
- Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.208 pp. 146-156
- Ruditapes philippinarum, acetylcholinesterase, acute exposure, aquatic ecosystems, aquatic environment, biomarkers, clams, diclofenac, enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, health status, humans, ibuprofen, lipid peroxidation, metallothionein, superoxide dismutase
- The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem has become a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this study, the marine clam Ruditapes philippinarum was exposed during 14 days to concentrations close to those found in the environment: (15 μg L−1) of carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac (DCF) and ibuprofen (IBU), three pharmaceuticals widely used worldwide and commonly found within the aquatic environment. Additionally, exposure was followed by a depuration phase (7 days). A battery of biomarkers (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase CAT, glutathione reductase GR, total glutathione peroxidase T-GPx, glutathione transferase GST, lipid peroxidation LPO, acetylcholinesterase AChE and metallothionein MT) was evaluated throughout the exposure and depuration. The Integrated Biomarker Response index was calculated with all selected biomarkers and used as a complementary tool in the evaluation of the organisms’ health status. Exposure induced changes in the clams’ biochemical responses that led to the hypothesis of the harmful role of the pharmaceuticals resulting in negative effects (changes in enzyme activities, LPO and MT levels, related to ROS production) particularly after short-term exposure. However, the clams showed the ability to cope with these imbalances by recovering their general oxidative status by the end of exposure.