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Energy saving and improvement of metabolism of cultured tobacco cells upon exposure to 2-D clinorotation

Soleimani, Maryam, Ghanati, Faezeh, Hajebrahimi, Zahra, Hajnorouzi, Abazar, Abdolmaleki, Parviz, Zarinkamar, Fatemeh
Journal of plant physiology 2019 v.234-235 pp. 36-43
Nicotiana tabacum, adenosine triphosphate, biomass, biosynthesis, cell lines, energy, energy conservation, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic acid, homeostasis, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, microgravity, neutralization, phenolic compounds, protein content, sugars, tobacco, tricarboxylic acid cycle
Studies have confirmed that on the ground, the plant cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity. Under microgravity conditions, such energy may be saved for other process such as biosynthesis of beneficial metabolites for growth. This hypothesis was examined on a cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Burley 21). The cells were continuously treated with 2-D clinostat for 1 week. Exposure to clinorotation conditions increased biomass and total protein. Total content of soluble sugar also increased which may provide more precursors for Krebs cycle and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. In the case of 2-D clinorotation, the expression and activity of glutamate producing enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) increased, whereas the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) decreased. Regarding the role of GAD in initiation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, it is plausible that under clinorotation condition, the tobacco cells directed their metabolism toward saving energy for Krebs cycling and more production of ATP rather than shifting to side paths such as GABA shunt.Improvement of radical scavenging enzymes activity and increase of the contents of phenolic compounds and certain peroxide neutralizing amino acids, e.g., His, Pro, Ser, and Asp under clinorotation conditions decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and maintained the growth potential of tobacco cells.