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PCLake+: A process-based ecological model to assess the trophic state of stratified and non-stratified freshwater lakes worldwide

Janssen, Annette B.G., Teurlincx, Sven, Beusen, Arthur H.W., Huijbregts, Mark A.J., Rost, Jasmijn, Schipper, Aafke M., Seelen, Laura M.S., Mooij, Wolf M., Janse, Jan H.
Ecological modelling 2019 v.396 pp. 23-32
ecological competition, ecosystems, evaporation, freshwater lakes, irradiation, macrophytes, models, phenology, temperate zones, water quality
The lake ecosystem model PCLake is a process-based model that was developed to simulate water quality based on ecological interactions in shallow, non-stratifying lakes in the temperate climate zone. Here we present PCLake+, which extends the PCLake model to cover a wide range of freshwater lakes that differ in stratification regime and climate-related processes. To this end, the model was extended with a hypolimnion layer that can be invoked and configured by forcing functions or by simple built-in empirical relationships that impose stratification. Further adjustments to the original PCLake model have been made with respect to the calculation of 1) light irradiation in the water column, 2) evaporation processes and 3) phenology of macrophytes. The simulation output of PCLake+ for different types of lakes complies well with generally accepted limnological knowledge, thus holding promise for future contributions to ecological theory and application to lakes around the globe.