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Removal of crystal violet from water using β-cyclodextrin functionalized biogenic zero-valent iron nanoadsorbents synthesized via aqueous root extracts of Ferula persica

Nasiri, Jaber, Motamedi, Elaheh, Naghavi, Mohammad Reza, Ghafoori, Mahdiye
Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.367 pp. 325-338
Ferula, X-ray diffraction, adsorption, beta-cyclodextrin, gentian violet, iron, models, nanoparticles, pH, remediation, scanning electron microscopy, sorption isotherms, surface area, temperature, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential
Three brands of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe° NPs) were biologically/chemically fabricated, and sorption capacities thereof in crystal violet (CV) water remediation were compared and contrasted. Meanwhile, the β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) amounts effects on the size and structure of Fe° NPs were evaluated via field emission scanning electron microscopy, elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and zeta potential analyses. Separated spherical ultra-small Fe° NPs (6.1 nm) with a narrower size distribution could be produced at higher dosages of βCD. The green synthesized Fe° NPs showed better performance than those produced chemically in CV removal (39.5% vs. 14.7%, respectively) because of their higher surface area (46.68 m2/g vs. 34.38 m2/g, respectively). βCD functionalized Fe° NPs could double nanoadsorbent proficiency in CV removal (99.8%), possibly because of simultaneous decrement in the nanoparticles sizes and increment in the active sorption sites of nanoadsorbent. The effects of nanoadsorbent amount, pH, contact time, temperature, and initial concentration on the sorption were all scrutinized. The adsorption kinetics were found to be finely fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir model was 454.5 mg/g (20 °C, at pH 9.0). The current green, reusable, and low-cost nanoadsorbent could be utilized proficiently for practical water remediation.