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Pharmacokinetic profile and anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin administered by different doses and routes to feedlot calves

Fazzio, Luis, Moreno, Laura, Galvan, Walter, Canton, Candela, Alvarez, Luis, Streitenberger, Nicolás, Sánchez, Ricardo, Lanusse, Carlos, Sanabria, Rodrigo
Veterinary parasitology 2019 v.266 pp. 73-79
Cooperia, blood sampling, calves, computer software, feedlots, finishing, gastrointestinal nematodes, grazing, high performance liquid chromatography, ivermectin, moxidectin, pharmacokinetics, therapeutics, weight gain
We evaluated the comparative plasma disposition kinetics and efficacy of moxidectin (MXD), administered by the intraruminal (IR) or subcutaneous (SC) route at two different dosage levels (0.2 and 1 mg/kg) in feedlot calves. Additionally, the efficacy was compared to an ivermectin (IVM, SC administration) treated group. This study was divided into two separate studies, the “Pharmacokinetic (PK) study” and the “Efficacy study”. The “PK study” involved 24 calves free of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), which were allocated into 4 groups (n = 6) and treated with MXD by either the SC or the IR route at the therapeutic (MXDSC0.2, MXDIR0.2, respectively) or at fivefold the therapeutic dose (MXDSC1.0, MXDIR1.0, respectively). Blood samples were collected from 3 h up to 14 days post-treatment. MXD concentrations in plasma samples were analyzed by HPLC. The “Efficacy study” included 125 calves naturally infected with GIN, which were allocated into five experimental groups (n = 25 each); the same four MXD-treated groups described for the “PK study”, and an additional group treated by the SC route with IVM (IVMSC0.2). The efficacy of IVM given at its therapeutic dose and the different MXD groups at the therapeutic and fivefold the therapeutic dose was calculated by analysis of the individual efficacy using the package eggCounts-2.1-1' on the R software environment, version 3.5.0 (R Core Team, 2018). Daily weight gain (DWG) was also measured over the first 47 days of the fattening cycle. Independently of the administration route, MXD peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were higher in groups treated with the higher dose (1.0 mg/kg), whereas a longer time to reach Cmax (Tmax) was observed after the IR treatments. The observed MXD efficacies were 85% (MXDSC0.2), 94% (MXDSC1.0), 84% (MXDIR0.2) and 99% (MXDIR1.0), at day +27. At day +27, all MXD-treated groups showed higher efficacies than the group having received IVM (45%). The post-treatment Cooperia spp. L3 counts were particularly low in the groups MXDSC1.0 and MXDIR1.0. All of the groups treated with MXD showed better DWG than the IVMSC0.2 group (P = 0.01). Dose and administration route modifications effectively improved the anthelmintic and productive performance of MXD. A high dose of MXD improved the control of IVM-resistant GIN in feedlot calves. However, this practice must be taken with caution, since MXD resistance could rapidly emerge, especially in grazing cattle.