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IDO, COX and iNOS have an important role in the proliferation of Neospora caninum in neuron/glia co-cultures

Jesus, L.B, Santos, A.B., Jesus, E.E.V., Santos, R.G.D., Grangeiro, M.S., Bispo-da-Silva, A., Arruda, M.R., Argolo, D.S., Pinheiro, A.M, El- Bachá, R.S., Costa, S.L., Costa, M.F.D.
Veterinary parasitology 2019 v.266 pp. 96-102
Neospora caninum, aggression, arginine, astrocytes, brain, cell division, coculture, encystment, homeostasis, immune response, immunocytochemistry, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, indomethacin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammation, interleukin-10, metabolism, models, neurites, parasites, parasitism, prostaglandin synthase, rats, tachyzoites, tryptophan, tumor necrosis factors
Central nervous system (CNS) is the main site for encystment of Neospora caninum in different animal species. In this tissue, glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) modulate responses to aggression in order to preserve homeostasis and neuronal function. Previous data showed that when primary cultures of glial cells are infected with N. caninum, they develop gliosis and the immune response is characterized by the release of TNF and IL-10, followed by the control of parasite proliferation. In order to elucidate this control, three enzymatic systems involved in parasite-versus-host interactions were observed on a model of neuron/glia co/cultures obtained from rat brains. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) responsible for the catabolism of tryptophan and arginine, respectively, and cycloxigenase (COX) were studied comparing their modulation by respective inhibitors with the number of tachyzoites or the immune response measured by the release of IL-10 and TNF. Cells were treated with the inhibitors of iNOS (1.5 mM L-NAME), IDO (1 mM 1-methyl tryptophan), COX-1 (1 μM indomethacin) and COX-2 (1 μM nimesulide) before infection with tachyzoites of N. caninum (1:1 cell: parasite). After 72 h of infection, immunocytochemistry showed astrogliosis and a significant increase in the number and length of neurites, compared with uninfected co-cultures, while an increase of IL-10 and TNF was verified. N. caninum did not change iNOS activity, but the inhibition of the basal levels of this enzyme stimulated parasite proliferation. Additionally, a significant increase of about 40% was verified in the IDO activity, whose inhibition caused 1.2-fold increase in parasitic growth. For COX-2 activity, infection of cultures stimulated a significant increase in release of PGE2 and its inhibition by nimesulide allowed the parasitic growth. These data indicate that iNOS, IDO and COX-2 control the proliferation of N. caninum in this in vitro model. On the other hand, the release of IL-10 by glia besides modulating the inflammation also allow the continuity of parasitism.