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Effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on the promoter methylation and expression of myogenesis-related genes in duck skeletal muscle

Wang, Yushi, Yan, Xiping, Liu, Hehe, Hu, Shenqiang, Hu, Jiwei, Li, Liang, Wang, Jiwen
Journal of thermal biology 2019 v.80 pp. 75-81
breast muscle, breasts, ducks, embryogenesis, epigenetics, gene expression, genes, legs, messenger RNA, methylation, muscle development, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, skeletal muscle, temperature
Avian embryos are an ideal system to investigate the effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development, but the characteristics and mechanisms of temperature effects on poultry embryonic myogenesis are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of increasing the incubation temperature by 1 °C on the expression of nine myogenesis-related genes in ducks and then explored the correlation between the alteration of promoter methylation and the expression of two of the nine genes under thermal manipulation (TM). The qRT-PCR results showed that TM during embryonic days (ED) 1–10 promoted (P < 0.05) the expression of genes in breast muscle (PAX3, PAX7, MYOG, MCK, SIX1, TNNC1) and leg muscle (MYOD, MYOG, MYF5, MCK, AKIRIN2, TNNC1). TM during ED10-20 promoted the expression of PAX3, MYF5 and MCK and inhibited AKIRIN2 expression in breast muscle (P < 0.05); however, it inhibited the expression of PAX3, PAX7, MYOD, MYOG, MYF5, SIX1, AKIRIN2 and TNNC1 and promoted MCK expression in leg muscle (P < 0.05). TM during ED20-27 inhibited the expression of genes in breast muscle (PAX7) and leg muscle (MYOD, MYOG, MYF5, TNNC1) and promoted MCK expression in breast and leg muscle (P < 0.05). Furthermore, with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform, it was observed that the average methylation level of AKIRIN2 (ED10) and TNNC1 (ED20) in leg muscle decreased (P < 0.05) after TM. Notably, we found significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlations between the methylation and mRNA levels of AKIRIN2 under TM during ED1-10 (r = − 0.969) and ED10-20 (r = − 0.805). Taken together, TM during ED1-10 was more favorable for improving duck myogenesis-related gene expression than TM during ED10-20 and ED20-27. TM during duck embryogenesis seemed to have a greater effect on the development of leg muscle than breast muscle and might alter AKIRIN2 expression by changing its promoter methylation status. These findings may be helpful to understand temperature effects on the muscle development of avian embryos and to explore the role of epigenetic regulation during this process.