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Multiple industrial uses of non-wood pine products

Neis, Franciele A., de Costa, Fernanda, de Araújo, Artur T., Fett, Janette Palma, Fett-Neto, Arthur G.
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.130 pp. 248-258
Pinus, agrochemicals, bark, batteries, biodegradability, biofuels, biomass, biopesticides, biosorption, cellulose, drugs, environmental impact, fiberboards, food additives, forest resources, income, ingredients, landscaping, manufacturing, plastics, raw materials, terpenoids, trees
Pines constitute a major tree crop, providing an array of products to several industrial sectors, but still holding significant new and unrealized potential worldwide. Among non-wood pine products resin is one of the best known and most exploited. Resin is a complex mixture of terpenes produced by specialized cells dedicated to tree defense. Terpenes from resin find various applications in industry, including chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, food additives, and bioenergy. More recent potential uses of resin products are biodegradable batteries and as components in the manufacturing of green plastics. Besides resin, other non-wood products from pines include needles, cones and bark, which can be used for landscaping, as well as plant cultivation substrates, biofuels and bioherbicides. Additional applications include medium-density fiberboard ingredients, metal biosorption composites, and production of nanofibrillated cellulose. The availability of industrial quantities of renewable non-wood biomass is a topic of significance due to the depletion of fossil-based raw materials and the respective environmental impact of their use. In this review, current and emerging applications of non-wood pine products are discussed, highlighting the importance of fully exploiting these forest resources in a sustainable fashion for maximum revenue generation.