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Adverse effects of p-TSA-doped polypyrrole particulate exposure during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development

Costa, Kesiane M., Pereira, Talita C.B., Valente, Cristhiane A., Pissinate, Kenia, Soares, Jéssica C., Cruz, Fernanda F., Corte, Temis W.F., Machado, Pablo, Basso, Nara R.S., Bogo, Maurício R.
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.177 pp. 58-67
Danio rerio, adverse effects, body length, chorion, colloids, dose response, embryogenesis, hatching, heart rate, in vivo studies, larvae, locomotion, mortality, nanomaterials, nanomedicine, polymers, pyrroles, sulfonic acid
Nanomaterials have been attracting attention due to the wide range of applications in nanomedicine. Polypyrrole (PPy), a conductive polymer, has been employed in the biomedical field due to its stimulus-responsive properties, although in vivo studies to assess its potential undesirable effects are limited. This study evaluated the effects of PPy doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid ((p-TSA); PPy/p-TSA) exposure (at 25, 100, 250 and 500 μg/mL) during six consecutive days on mortality, hatching, spontaneous movement, heart rate, morphology and locomotion behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae. Additionally, PPy/p-TSA envelopment of developing embryo chorions and gene expression of a hypoxia-related marker in this context were also evaluated. No significant mortality was found; however, altered heart rate and early hatching was identified in all exposed groups at 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Surprisingly, with the 500 μg/mL dose, hatching initiated as early as 24 hpf. PPy/p-TSA adhered to and enveloped the chorion of embryos in a time- and dose-dependent fashion; morphological changes in body length and ocular distance were found with higher concentrations. PPy/p-TSA-exposed animals showed locomotor behavioral alterations compatible with hypoactivity. A significant increase in the turn angle with a concomitant reduction in meander was also verified at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results emphasize the adverse effects of PPy/p-TSA on zebrafish development and behavior. Some effects of PPy/p-TSA exposure were dose-dependent, and indicate specific adverse effects of PPy/p-TSA on zebrafish development and behavior.