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Adverse effects of p-TSA-doped polypyrrole particulate exposure during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development
- Costa, Kesiane M., Pereira, Talita C.B., Valente, Cristhiane A., Pissinate, Kenia, Soares, Jéssica C., Cruz, Fernanda F., Corte, Temis W.F., Machado, Pablo, Basso, Nara R.S., Bogo, Maurício R.
- Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.177 pp. 58-67
- Danio rerio, adverse effects, body length, chorion, colloids, dose response, embryogenesis, hatching, heart rate, in vivo studies, larvae, locomotion, mortality, nanomaterials, nanomedicine, polymers, pyrroles, sulfonic acid
- Nanomaterials have been attracting attention due to the wide range of applications in nanomedicine. Polypyrrole (PPy), a conductive polymer, has been employed in the biomedical field due to its stimulus-responsive properties, although in vivo studies to assess its potential undesirable effects are limited. This study evaluated the effects of PPy doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid ((p-TSA); PPy/p-TSA) exposure (at 25, 100, 250 and 500 μg/mL) during six consecutive days on mortality, hatching, spontaneous movement, heart rate, morphology and locomotion behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae. Additionally, PPy/p-TSA envelopment of developing embryo chorions and gene expression of a hypoxia-related marker in this context were also evaluated. No significant mortality was found; however, altered heart rate and early hatching was identified in all exposed groups at 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Surprisingly, with the 500 μg/mL dose, hatching initiated as early as 24 hpf. PPy/p-TSA adhered to and enveloped the chorion of embryos in a time- and dose-dependent fashion; morphological changes in body length and ocular distance were found with higher concentrations. PPy/p-TSA-exposed animals showed locomotor behavioral alterations compatible with hypoactivity. A significant increase in the turn angle with a concomitant reduction in meander was also verified at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results emphasize the adverse effects of PPy/p-TSA on zebrafish development and behavior. Some effects of PPy/p-TSA exposure were dose-dependent, and indicate specific adverse effects of PPy/p-TSA on zebrafish development and behavior.