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Clean production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from cellulose using a hydrothermal/biomass-based carbon catalyst

Wu, Qiong, Zhang, Gaoyue, Gao, Mingming, Cao, Shuangshuang, Li, Lu, Liu, Shiwei, Xie, Congxia, Huang, Lang, Yu, Shitao, Ragauskas, Arthur J.
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.213 pp. 1096-1102
Bronsted acids, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, active sites, adsorption, carbon, catalysts, catalytic activity, cellulose, hot water treatment, hydrogen, hydrogenation, hydrolysis, hydroxymethylfurfural, moieties, nickel, pyridines, transmission electron microscopy
Enhanced 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) production from cellulose was achieved using a novel and clean Ni-doped biomass-based carbon catalyst (Nin/CS) under hydrothermal degradation conditions. The obtained catalyst was characterized by ICP-AES, N2 adsorption–desorption, TEM, XPS, XRD, FT-IR, NH3-TPD, and pyridine IR. Abundant hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were present on the biomass-based carbon spheres (CSs), providing Lewis and Brønsted acid active sites. Furthermore, adding a Ni source increased the total acid content and the Brønsted acid strength. Ni mainly existed in its metallic form and was embedded in the porous carbon skeleton, providing active sites for cellulose adsorption and catalytic conversion. The effect of Ni dose, reaction time, and reaction conditions on 5-HMF production were investigated and optimized, acid catalyzed hydrolysis instead of hydrogenation reaction occurred when the parameters were optimized. A 5-HMF yield of 85% was obtained when cellulose (1 g) was reacted with H2 (6 MPa) at 200 °C for 60 min using Ni2.0/CS (200 mg) as catalyst.