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Advances in the Development of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Vaccines: Challenges, Opportunities, and Perspectives

Wang, Jin-Lei, Zhang, Nian-Zhang, Li, Ting-Ting, He, Jun-Jun, Elsheikha, Hany M., Zhu, Xing-Quan
Trends in parasitology 2019 v.35 no.3 pp. 239-253
Toxoplasma gondii, animal models, immune evasion, immune response, pathogens, toxoplasmosis, vaccine development, vaccines
Important progress has been made in understanding how immunity is elicited against Toxoplasma gondii – a complex pathogen with multiple mechanisms of immune evasion. Many vaccine candidates have been tested using various strategies in animal models. However, none of these strategies has delivered as yet, and important challenges remain in the development of vaccines that can eliminate the tissue cysts and/or fully block vertical transmission. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the host immune response to T. gondii infection and summarize the key limitations for the development of an effective, safe, and durable toxoplasmosis vaccine. We also discuss how the successes and failures in developing and testing vaccine candidates have provided a roadmap for future vaccine development.