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Evaluation and characterization of the plant growth promoting potentials of two heterocystous cyanobacteria for improving food grains growth

Suresh, A., Soundararajan, S., Elavarasi, S., Lewis Oscar, F., Thajuddin, N.
Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology 2019 v.17 pp. 647-652
Anabaena variabilis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nostoc calcicola, Sorghum (Poaceae), Zea mays, biofertilizers, chlorophyll, crops, ecosystems, food grains, freshwater, germination, high performance liquid chromatography, hormones, in vitro studies, indole acetic acid, leaves, plant growth, plant height, prokaryotic cells, soil fertility, soil texture, statistical analysis, thin layer chromatography, water holding capacity
Cyanobacteria are potential prokaryotes found in diverse environment of freshwater and marine water ecosystem. They are well known applicant practised in ancient agriculture technique for improving the soil fertility, water holding capacity and texture of the soil. The availability, low cost and fast growth has considered them as superior candidate for biotechnological applications. In the recent years, cyanobacteria are been used to produce plant growth promoting hormones or substances for facilitating effective plant growth. The present study is focussed on validating the plant growth promoting ability of two heterocystous cyanobacteria strains (Anabaena variabilis, Nostoc calcicola) in five crop plant. The cyanobacterial strains were characterized by biochemical and plant growth promoting parameters like Chlorophyll content and IAA production. As result of this study, in vitro experiments revealed 100% of seed germination by Cyanobacteria growth promoting substances (CGPS) of Anabaena variabilis in the grains of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolour, while 90% germination in Nostoc calcicola. Statistical analysis proved the growth root length, plant height, weight of fresh and dry root, number of leaves in CGPS treated and untreated plant in pot. Further the CGPS was characterized using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), FT-IR and HPLC analysis. The dominant auxins in the two isolates were IAA in the range of 0.0372–1.2327 μg g−1 dry weight was detected. However, IAA production by Anabaena variabilis proved as potential candidate for promoting plant growth. In addition, Anabaena variabilis can also be utilized as a biofertilizer for the crops cultivated in normal fields.