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Formation of Multiple Nitrosamines from the Ozonation of Corresponding Precursor Secondary Amines: Influencing Factors and Transformation Mechanisms
- Wang, Wanfeng, Liang, Fang, Guo, Yanling, Wu, Ruijie, Pan, Feng, Jin, Caixia, Wang, Jun
- Water, air, and soil pollution 2019 v.230 no.2 pp. 41
- ambient temperature, disinfection, drinking water, humic acids, hydroxyl radicals, hydroxylamine, nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines, oxidation, ozonation, ozone, pH, secondary amines, water supply, waterways
- Since nitrosamine disinfection by products is highly carcinogenic, they have attracted considerable attention due to their increased presence in ambient waterways and potable water supplies. For the present study, the potential formation of nitrosamines from corresponding precursor secondary amines during ozonation was investigated. The results revealed that five nitrosamines were observed during the ozonation of their corresponding secondary amines. The molar yields initially increased and then decreased with longer contact times and higher ozone doses. These phenomena indicated that ozone not only promoted nitrosamine formation but also degraded the formed nitrosamines. High pH had a positive influence on nitrosamine formation at room temperature. Further, coexisting substances including nitrate, nitrite, humic acid, and tert-butanol inhibited the generation of nitrosamines due to hydroxyl radical (·OH) competition and scavengers, whereas in the presence of hydroxylamine, nitrosamine formation increased considerably without ozone due to its capacity for independent formation between secondary amines and hydroxylamine. Further, the generation of nitrosamines from secondary amines was primarily attributed to O₃ and ·OH oxidation, which was produced through the decomposition of ozone. The transformation pathways were mainly comprised of the indirect routes between the O₃/·OH intermediates. The findings of this study were helpful toward expanding the knowledge of nitrosamine formation during the corresponding precursor secondary amine ozonation process.