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Risk characterization of bisphenol-A in the Slovenian population starting from human biomonitoring data

Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A., Tratnik, Janja Snoj, Mazej, Darja, Kosjek, Tina, Heath, Ester, Horvat, Milena, Anesti, Ourania, Karakitsios, Spyros P.
Environmental research 2019 v.170 pp. 293-300
absorbed dose, algorithms, bisphenol A, children, creatinine, environmental monitoring, experimental design, fathers, humans, models, mothers, physiology, risk, risk characterization, Slovenia
The current study aims to characterize exposure and risk associated to bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure in Slovenia, starting from biomonitoring data. Based on the urinary data, daily intake for the individuals was back-calculated using a physiology based biokinetic (PBBK) model properly parameterized for BPA, coupled with an exposure reconstruction algorithm. Re-running the PBBK model in forward mode allowed the estimation of biologically effective dose (free plasma BPA) and the respective daily area under the curve (AUC). Finally, risk characterization ratio was derived using both external and internal dose metrics. The urinary BPA levels were found low, with GM of 0.79, 1.51 and 0.20 μg/g creatinine for mothers, children and fathers respectively, similar to the levels of other European countries. Based on the above and accounting for the dynamics of exposure and biokinetics, daily intake was estimated, median exposure levels have been estimated equal to 0.019, 0.035 and 0.005 μg/kg_bw/d for mothers, fathers and children respectively. The highest estimated intake level was found in a child, equal to 0.87 μg/kg_bw/d, while the maximum intake for mothers and fathers were 0.7 and 0.8 μg/kg_bw/d respectively. The respective RCR levels using the EFSA t-TDI of 4 μg/kg_bw/d were 2 magnitudes of order lower below 1, independently of the selected method. It has to be noted that had daily intake been estimated solely based on the urinary concentrations mass balance, the estimated intake would be lower, as a result of the oversimplification on exposure and elimination time dynamics. This highlights the importance for using PBBK modelling based exposure reconstruction schemes for rapidly metabolized and excreted compounds such as BPA, as well as the study design of efficient sampling for rapidly metabolized compounds.