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Efficacy of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole on murine oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi IV

Zanusso Junior, Gerson, Massago, Miyoko, Kian, Danielle, Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas
Experimental parasitology 2018 v.185 pp. 92-97
Chagas disease, Rhodnius, Syzygium aromaticum, Trypanosoma cruzi, benznidazole, blood, drug therapy, essential oils, insects, mice, morbidity, mortality, parasitemia, patients, public health, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Amazonia
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem. One of the causes of the high morbidity and mortality in patients is the lack of an effective drug therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole (BZ) in mice orally inoculated with strain of T. cruzi IV obtained from oral CD outbreak occurred in Western Brazilian Amazonia. All the animals inoculated with metacyclic trypomastigote forms (AM14 strain, BZ resistant), derived from the insect Rhodnius robustus, became infected and there was no difference in the mortality rate between the experimental groups. When compared with untreated control animals (UTC), the treatment with essential oil of S. aromaticum (EOSA) alone promoted reduction in 1/5 parameters derived from the parasitemia curve, whereas the treatments with BZ alone or in combination (BZ + EOSA) promoted reduction in 4/5 of those parameters, presenting similar profiles of parasitemia curve. The animals treated with BZ and with the combination BZ + EOSA presented lower patency periods in comparison with the animals in EOSA group, and lower positivity of blood cultures when compared with the UTC group. The results of molecular analysis by qPCR in both blood and cardiac tissue did not show differences between the groups. The cure rates obtained with the different treatments presented the following ascending order: EOSA = 12.5% (1/8), BZ = 25.0% (2/8) and BZ + EOSA = 37.5% (3/8). Although there are no significant differences between them, these results claims that the use of this essential oil could be of interest for treatment of Chagas disease.