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Giardia: an under-reported foodborne parasite
- Ryan, Una, Hijjawi, Nawal, Feng, Yaoyu, Xiao, Lihua
- International journal for parasitology 2019 v.49 no.1 pp. 1-11
- Giardia lamblia, HACCP, cost effectiveness, diarrhea, disease surveillance, financial economics, food chain, food contamination, food matrix, foodborne illness, genotyping, giardiasis, immunomagnetic separation, parasites, pathogens, public health, viability
- Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are a serious public health issue and result in significant global economic losses. Despite their importance to public health, epidemiological data on foodborne diseases including giardiasis caused by the enteric parasite, Giardia duodenalis, are lacking. This parasite is estimated to cause ∼28.2 million cases of diarrhoea each year due to contamination of food, but very few foodborne outbreaks have been documented due to the limitations of current detection as well as surveillance methods. The current method for the recovery of Giardia cysts from food matrices using immunomagnetic separation requires further standardisation and cost reduction before it can be widely used. It also should incorporate downstream molecular procedures for genotyping, and traceback and viability analyses. Foodborne giardiasis can be potentially controlled through improvements in national disease surveillance systems and the establishment of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point interventions across the food chain. Studies are needed to assess the true prevalence and public health impact of foodborne giardiasis.