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Effects of continuous and increasing lipopolysaccharide infusion on basal and stimulated metabolism in lactating Holstein cows

Horst, E.A., Kvidera, S.K., Dickson, M.J., McCarthy, C.S., Mayorga, E.J., Al-Qaisi, M., Ramirez, H.A., Keating, A.F., Baumgard, L.H.
Journal of dairy science 2019 v.102 no.4 pp. 3584-3597
3-hydroxybutyric acid, Escherichia coli, Holstein, Western blotting, acclimation, ad libitum feeding, adipose tissue, biochemical pathways, biopsy, blood, blood sampling, body weight, cows, enzymes, epinephrine, free fatty acids, glucose, glucose tolerance tests, insulin, insulin resistance, lactating females, lactation, lipopolysaccharides, liver, messenger RNA, metabolism, milk, milking, muscles, nutrient intake, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, skeletal muscle, urea nitrogen
Experimental objectives of this study were to characterize the systemic and intracellular metabolic response to continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in mid-lactation Holstein cows (169 ± 20 d in milk; 681 ± 16 kg of body weight). Following 3 d of acclimation, cows were enrolled in 2 experimental periods (P). During P1 (3 d), cows were fed ad libitum and baseline data were collected. In P2 (8 d), cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) saline-infused and pair-fed (CON-PF; i.v. sterile saline at 40 mL/h; n = 5) or (2) LPS-infused and fed ad libitum (LPS-AL; Escherichia coli O55:B5 at 0.017, 0.020, 0.026, 0.036, 0.055, 0.088, 0.148, and 0.148 µg/kg of body weight per hour for d 1 through 8, respectively; n = 6). During P2, CON-PF cows were pair-fed to LPS-AL cows to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar nutrient intake. Blood samples were collected on d 1 and 2 of P1 and d 1, 3, 5, and 7 of P2. Following the P2 d 7 a.m. milking, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver biopsies were collected for reverse transcription quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. To assess whole-body nutrient trafficking, an i.v. glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed following the a.m. milking on P2 d 8; 4 h after the GTT, cows received an epinephrine challenge. During P2, there were no treatment differences in circulating glucose. Relative to P1, CON-PF cows had or tended to have decreased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin (29 and 47%, respectively) during P2, whereas neither variable changed in LPS-AL cows, leading to an overall increase in β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin (41 and 140%, respectively) relative to CON-PF cows. Circulating nonesterified fatty acids were increased from d 1 to 3 and subsequently decreased from d 3 to 7 in cows from both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen gradually decreased in CON-PF cows and increased in LPS-AL cows from d 1 to 5 of P2, resulting in an overall 25% increase in LPS-AL versus CON-PF cows. In response to the GTT, the glucose and insulin area under the curve were increased 33 and 56%, respectively, in LPS-AL compared with CON-PF cows; changes reflective of whole-body insulin resistance. However, protein abundance of insulin signaling markers within muscle, liver, and adipose tissue were similar between treatments. There were no observable treatment differences in the glucose or nonesterified fatty acids response to the epinephrine challenge. No treatment differences were observed in hepatic mRNA abundance of key gluconeogenic or lipid export enzymes. In conclusion, chronic LPS exposure altered multiple parameters of basal and stimulated metabolism, but did not appear to affect the molecular machinery evaluated herein.