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Pore diffusion limits removal of monochloramine in treatment of swimming pool water using granular activated carbon
- Skibinski, Bertram, Götze, Christoph, Worch, Eckhard, Uhl, Wolfgang
- Water research 2018 v.132 pp. 270-281
- activated carbon, mass transfer, porosity, swimming pools, temperature, water treatment
- Overall apparent reaction rates for the removal of monochloramine (MCA) in granular activated carbon (GAC) beds were determined using a fixed-bed reactor system and under conditions typical for swimming pool water treatment. Reaction rates dropped and quasi-stationary conditions were reached quickly. Diffusional mass transport in the pores was shown to be limiting the overall reaction rate. This was reflected consistently in the Thiele modulus, in the effect of temperature, pore size distribution and of grain size on the reaction rates. Pores <2.5 times the diameter of the monochloramine molecule were shown to be barely accessible for the monochloramine conversion reaction. GACs with a significant proportion of large mesopores were found to have the highest overall reactivity for monochloramine removal.