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Xanthan gum-based materials for omega-3 PUFA delivery: Preparation, characterization and antineoplastic activity evaluation

Trombino, Sonia, Serini, Simona, Cassano, Roberta, Calviello, Gabriella
Carbohydrate polymers 2019 v.208 pp. 431-440
alpha-linolenic acid, antineoplastic activity, antioxidants, cell growth, colorectal neoplasms, docosahexaenoic acid, hydrogels, microparticles, neoplasm cells, omega-3 fatty acids, pH, xanthan gum
Xanthan gum-based microspheres and hydrogels, useful for targeted colorectal release of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were successfully prepared and characterized. In particular, the microsphere size, as well as the high hydrogel swelling degree at pH 7.4, and the omega-3 PUFA loading efficiency of both the materials suggested their suitability for colorectal delivery. Moreover, the antioxidant efficiency of the xanthan gum based materials suggests their ability to protect the omega-PUFA cargo. We demonstrated that α-linolenic acid (ALA 18:3ω-3) carried by the materials increased significantly its ability to reduce colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro. On the contrary, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) enclosed in the hydrogel formulation did not enhance its already high anti-neoplastic potential. The improved anti-neoplastic efficacy of ALA enclosed in both the xanthan gum-based formulations further supports the hypothesis of a potential use of this omega-3 PUFA as a suitable and more sustainable alternative to the fish-derived DHA.