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Deep-water sea anemone with a two-chromosome mitochondrial genome

Dubin, Arseny, Chi, Sylvia Ighem, Emblem, Åse, Moum, Truls, Johansen, Steinar D.
Gene 2019 v.692 pp. 195-200
Anthozoa, alleles, circular DNA, cytochrome-c oxidase, introns, mitochondrial genes, mitochondrial genome, oxidative phosphorylation, proteins, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, vertebrates
Mitochondrial genome organization of sea anemones appears conserved among species and families, and is represented by a single circular DNA molecule of 17 to 21 kb. The mitochondrial gene content corresponds to the same 13 protein components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) system as in vertebrates. Hallmarks, however, include a highly reduced tRNA gene repertoire and the presence of autocatalytic group I introns. Here we demonstrate that the mitochondrial genome of the deep-water sea anemone Protanthea simplex deviates significantly from that of other known sea anemones. The P. simplex mitochondrial genome contains a heavily scrambled order of genes that are coded on both DNA strands and organized along two circular mito-chromosomes, MCh-I and MCh-II. We found MCh-I to be representative of the prototypic sea anemone mitochondrial genome, encoding 12 OxPhos proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, two transfer RNAs, and a group I intron. In contrast, MCh-II was found to be a laterally transferred plasmid-like DNA carrying the conserved cytochrome oxidase II gene and a second allele of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.