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Root bark extract of Calliandra portoricensis (Jacq.) Benth. chemoprevents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary gland toxicity in rats

Adefisan, Adedoyin, Owumi, Solomon, Adaramoye, Oluwatosin
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2019 v.233 pp. 22-33
Calliandra, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, aspartate transaminase, bark, bilirubin, blood serum, breasts, catalase, chemoprevention, engorgement, estrogens, females, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glutathione, immunohistochemistry, inflammation, laboratory animals, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation, mammary glands, mechanism of action, methanol, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, progesterone, proteins, rats, toxicity, traditional medicine, vincristine, weight gain, Nigeria
Calliandra portoricensis (CP) is a herb widely used in Nigeria for the treatment of breast engorgement. However, the scientific evidence of this use and its mechanisms of action is not clearly understood.We assessed the chemopreventive effects of methanol extract of CP on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary gland toxicity in rats.Fingerprinting of methanol extract of CP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was done. Female Wistar rats were assigned into eight groups: Group 1 (control), group 2 received NMU only, groups 3, 4 and 5 received NMU and treated with CP at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Group 6 received CP (300 mg/kg), group 7 received NMU and vincristine, while group 8 received vincristine.The weight-gain by rats decreased in all groups that received NMU. Administration of NMU significantly increased organo-somatic weight of mammary gland by 52%. The NMU increased serum nitric oxide, total bilirubin, mammary myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation by 76%, 87%, 130% and 21%, respectively, as well as activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Also, NMU-treated rats had decreased total sulphydryl, reduced glutathione and catalase. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong expression of estrogen, progesterone and EGFR-2 proteins in NMU-treated rats. Treatment with CP (200 and 300 mg/kg) attenuated NMU-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.CP ameliorated NMU-induced toxicity by modulating different cellular targets.