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Pathogenicity differences of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis-specific virulence plasmids and clinical S. Choleraesuis strains with large plasmids to the human THP-1 cell death

Huang, Yao-Kuang, Chen, Sheng-Ya, Wong, Min Yi, Chiu, Cheng-Hsun, Chu, Chishih
Microbial pathogenesis 2019 v.128 pp. 69-74
Salmonella Typhimurium, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, humans, necrosis, pathogens, phagocytosis, plasmids, serotypes, swine, virulence
Salmonella is a common foodborne and zoonotic pathogen. Only a few serovars carry a virulence plasmid (pSV), which enhances the pathogenicity of the host. Here, we investigated the pathogenicity roles of the pSVs among wild-type, plasmid-less, and complemented S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis S. Choleraesuis in invasion, phagocytosis, and intracellular bacterial survival in human THP-1 cells and cell death patterns by flow cytometry and difference in cell death patterns between pig and human S. Choleraesuis isolates with large pSCVs. Virulence plasmid (pSTV) led to slightly increasing cellular apoptosis for S. Typhimurium; virulence plasmid (pSEV) enhanced apoptosis and necrosis significantly for S. Enteritidis; and pSCV reduced apoptosis significantly for S. Choleraesuis. After complementation, pSTV increased the intracellular survival of pSCV-less Choleraesuis and the cytotoxicity against human THP-1 cells. Using the Cytochalasin D to differentiate the invasion of S. Choleraaesuis and phagocytosis of THP-1 cells determined that pSCV were responsible for invasion and phagocytosis at 0 h and inhibited intracellular replication in THP-1 cells, and pSTV were responsible for invasion and increased intracellular survival for S. Choleraesuis in THP-1 cells. The human isolates with large pSCV induced more cellular apoptosis and necrosis than the pig isolates. In conclusion, human S. Choleraesuis isolates carrying large pSCVs were more adapted to human THP-1 cells for more cell death than pig isolates with large pSCV. The role of pSVs in invasion, phagocytosis, intracellular survival and apoptosis differed among hosted serovars.