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Continuous feeding of a combined high-fat and high-sucrose diet, rather than an individual high-fat or high-sucrose diet, rapidly enhances the glucagon-like peptide-1 secretory response to meal ingestion in diet-induced obese rats

Pinyo, Jukkrapong, Hira, Tohru, Hara, Hiroshi
Nutrition 2019 v.62 pp. 122-130
animal disease models, blood glucose, body weight changes, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose, high carbohydrate diet, high fat diet, insulin, insulin secretion, lipid content, nutrients, obesity, rats, sucrose
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L-cells in response to nutrient ingestion. To date, GLP-1 secretion in diet-induced obesity is not well characterized. We aimed to examine GLP-1 secretion in response to meal ingestion during the progression of diet-induced obesity and determinewhether a combined high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet, an individual high-fat (HiFat), or a high-sucrose (HiSuc) diet affect adaptive changes in the postprandial GLP-1 response.Rats were fed a control, HiFat diet (30% weight), HiSuc diet (40% weight), or HFS (30% fat and 40% sucrose) diet for 5 wk. Meal tolerance tests were conducted to determine postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 responses to standard (control) diet ingestion every 2 wk.After 5 wk, body weight gain of the HiFat (232.3 ± 7.8 g; P = 0.021) and HFS groups (228.0 ± 7.8; P = 0.039), but not the HiSuc group (220.3 ± 7.9; P = 0.244), were significantly higher than that of the control group (200.7 ± 5.4 g). In meal tolerance tests after 2 wk, GLP-1 concentration was significantly elevated in the HFS group only (17.2 ± 2.6 pM; P < 0.001) in response to meal ingestions, but the HiFat group (16.6 ± 3.7 pM; P = 0.156) had a similar response as the HFS group. After 4 wk, GLP-1 concentrations were similarly elevated at 15min in the HFS (14.1 ± 4.4; P = 0.010), HiFat (13.2 ± 2.0; P < 0.001), and HiSuc (13.0 ± 3.3; P = 0.016) groups, but the HFS (9.8 ± 1.0; P = 0.019) and HiFat (8.3 ± 1.5; P = 0.010) groups also had significant elevation at 30min.These results demonstrate that the continuous ingestion of excessive fat and sucrose rapidly enhances the GLP-1 secretory response to luminal nutrients, and the HiFat diet may have a potent effect compared with the HiSuc diet on GLP-1 secretory responses. The increment of postprandial GLP-1 and insulinsecretion may have a role in normalizing postprandial glycaemia and slowing the establishment of glucose intolerance.