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Hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose in ammonia/water

Xu, Zhi-Xiang, Cheng, Jin-Hong, He, Zhi-Xia, Wang, Qian, Shao, Yue-Wen, Hu, Xun
Bioresource technology 2019 v.278 pp. 311-317
ammonia, biofuels, cellulose, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, hydrothermal liquefaction, spectroscopy, temperature
In order to obtain the N-containing organics from cellulose under mild conditions, hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose in the presence of ammonia was conducted in this study. The results showed that the increasing reaction temperature and prolonging time facilitated the conversion of cellulose in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) with NH3·H2O and decreased the amount of solid residue. Reaction temperature showed more influence than reaction time on solid residue formation. The components of bio-oil were significantly affected by reaction temperature and reaction time. Electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) provided an insight for understanding the distribution of the different kinds of N-heterocycle compounds in the bio-oil. The possible reaction pathway of N-heterocycle compounds formation from cellulose during hydrothermal liquefaction with NH3·H2O was proposed.