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Alternative sources of oils and fats from Amazonian plants: Fatty acids, methyl tocols, total carotenoids and chemical composition

Serra, Josilene Lima, Rodrigues, Antônio Manoel da Cruz, de Freitas, Rilton Alves, Meirelles, Antonio José de Almeida, Darnet, Silvain Henri, Silva, Luiza Helena Meller da
Food research international 2019 v.116 pp. 12-19
Brazil nuts, Theobroma grandiflorum, babassu oil, carotenes, chemical composition, dodecanoic acid, iodine, linoleic acid, lipophilicity, myristic acid, nut oils, oleic acid, palmitic acid, passion fruits, polyunsaturated fatty acids, raw materials, saponification, saturated fats, vitamins
Amazonian plants possess high amounts of little-explored lipid compounds. Chemical parameters and lipophilic compounds present in twelve oils and fats from different Amazonian plants were characterized. The fatty acids identified reveal saturated fats, such as babassu oil and muru-muru fat (rich in lauric acid), ucuhuba fat (myristic acid), and bacuri fat (palmitic acid). Buriti, pracaxi, and patawa oils showed high oleic acid content. Passion fruit seed and Brazil nut oils had high levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in linoleic acid. The oleaginous plants had high unsaturation degree and high content of medium-length-chain fatty acids due to high values of iodine, saponification, and peroxide. For methyl tocols and total carotenes, a simultaneous determination method was used and revealed high levels of these vitamins in buriti oil. No previous work in the literature has described all these parameters in Amazonian oils and fats, especially regarding plant species such as bacuri, cupuassu, and ucuhuba. These results provide information on oils and fats that could be used as alternative sources of raw material for the food and pharmaceutics industries.