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Pre-fermentative supplementation of fatty acids alters the metabolic activity of wine yeasts

Pinu, Farhana R., Villas-Boas, Silas G., Martin, Damian
Food research international 2019 v.121 pp. 835-844
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biochemical pathways, cell membranes, fermentation, gamma-linolenic acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, grape juice, hexanoic acid, isoleucine, linoleic acid, metabolites, odor compounds, oleic acid, palmitic acid, pyruvic acid, viability, wine yeasts, winemaking, wines
Fatty acids play important roles in the maintenance of cell membrane, viability and overall metabolism of wine yeasts (particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during adverse winemaking conditions. We previously showed that linoleic acid supplementation markedly affect aroma compound production of S. cerevisiae wine strains. However, very little is known about how other commonly found fatty acids in grape juice modulate the growth and metabolism of S. cerevisiae. We aimed to determine the individual effect of five fatty acids on fermentation patterns and metabolism of two wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae EC1118 and X5). Microvinification was performed at 15 °C by supplementing a grape juice (individually) with three different concentrations of saturated (palmitic acid), unsaturated (oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids) and short-chain (hexanoic acid) fatty acids. Metabolite profiles of the resulting wines were determined using Gas-chromatography coupled to Mass-spectrometry (GC–MS). Our data show that the addition of γ-linolenic acid to the juice caused the production of higher amounts of amino and organic acids (except isoleucine and 2-oxoglutaric acid) in wines when fermented by EC1118, while palmitic acid supplementation showed similar trends when fermented by X5. The effect of linoleic acid was independent of yeast strains and we observed a global reduction of amino and organic acids (except pyruvic acid) while increased production of most of the fatty acids other than the supplemented ones. Our data clearly suggest that pre-fermentative supplementation of different fatty acids indeed influenced the growth and metabolism of wine yeasts in a different way. Thus, attention needs to be paid not only to the wine yeast strain used during the winemaking but also to the overall grape juice composition, including fatty acids, to obtain the desired wine characteristics.